Ten lessons on the recent European metropolitan planning. Arguments for reflecting on the practice and for designing spatial planning instruments
Facing an emerging territorial model for which definite forms, contents and methods of traditional planning are not valid, some metropolitan areas become innovative clusters in supra-local planning. What can we learn from these heterogeneous experiences? The objective of this article is to highlight the instrumental contributions of the recent metropolitan planning practice in Europe.
Through a multiple-case study of three plans, we attempt to define the specificity of metropolitan planning tools in three orders: the instrumental framework, the scope of the plans, and the management strategies.
Keywords: metropolitan-region; supra-local planning; technical innovation.