Apprising Fragmentation in Regional Innovation Systems: A typology for Spain
This article is intended to estimate the inner connectivity of Spanish Regional Innovation Systems (RISs). In order to do so, we appraise their inner fragmentation with regards to certain system problems that so far have mainly been described in a theoretical fashion. Instead, we make use of four sets of quantitative indicators which are integrated into an interpretive framework composed of the main subsystems of RISs. Consequently, the so-called «managerial gaps», «structural holes», «innovation gaps» and the «valley of death» are placed together in this framework as a means to be further studied across the Spanish autonomous communities’ RISs. The empirical analysis is based on an ad hoc data exploitation which stems from various surveys conducted by the Spanish Official Statistical Institute (INE) and the Spanish Venture Capital Association (ASCRI). We conduct multivariate techniques such as Multiple Factor Analyses (MFA) and Cluster Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of our database, leading us to the presentation of a new typology for Spain. We find asymmetric responses with regards to these problems, which might demand for the design of individual corrective measures adapted to the specificities of each system observed.
Keywords: regions; Innovation Systems; fragmentation; Spain; Multiple Factor Analysis.
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