Amparo Roca Zamora
The integration of the European economies through the completion
of the single or internal market (IM) is one of the most solid pillars of the European
policy-making. Nevertheless, near twenty years after the «1992» IM programme,
the IM still presents shadows in its performance as well as areas to be completed
that had prevented the IM to exploit all its potential for enhancing competitiveness and growth in Europe, in spite of the undeniable micro and macro-economic
positive results already achieved. These weaknesses and «missing links», together
with the new economic and political context (economic crisis and arrival of the
new Commission, which has just launched the new Strategy for European growth
«Europe 2020») have moved in 2010 to a process of political relaunching of the
IM, called to culminate in 2012, surrounded by a much more complex and less
favourable to integration context than the situation prevailing in 1985 when the
«1992» programme was launched.
Por Manuel Hernández Muñiz
Francisco Pedraja Chaparro y Alfonso Utrilla de la Hoz
The core of the paper focuses on assessing the new funding system
for the autonomous regions in Spain (approved in July 2009) taking into account
the problems that derive from the design and the running of the previous system
and according to the main principles of a decentralization funding scheme: autonomy
Once the pending problems have been identified, we make an effort to explain the
new model through the description and articulation of its basic elements. Likewise,
an initial estimation of the resource allocation in the first year of implementation
(2009) is also presented as a complement of the previous explanation.
From our viewpoint, the new model achieves significant improvements in terms
of both principles (autonomy and equity), although some of the weaknesses of the
previous model remain unresolved and new problems also arise. As a result, we
cannot provide a favourable judgement about the current funding system. Moreover,
it must be pointed out that the reform does not fulfil the requirements in terms
of transparency and the consolidation of public finance, given that it is the most
complex and expensive model (the Central government assumes a significant part
of the fall in regional revenues) in the entire Autonomous regions’ trajectory. Finally,
it is worth noting the surprising lack of commitment in terms of effective
corresponsibility and budgeting consolidation in regional governments, which can
be explained an agreement reached in a period of economic crisis that clearly affect
the public revenues.
Argimiro Rojo Salgado
One of the main characteristics of societies nowadays is that of experiences
of cross-border cooperation. A string of events occurring in recent decades,
which are associated with profound changes in today’s society, has favoured
the spread and intensification of such cooperation especially active in the European
Union venue. In this paper we propose to delve into the European cross-border
experience and intend to extract from this some of the consequences and impact
mainly related to new ways of thinking and organizing the European territory.
Pilar Murias Fernández, Fidel Martínez Roget y Simone Novello
This paper proposes a revised view of regional economic wellbeing.
Recent papers on regional studies have expressed concern about the notion
of regional well-being that considers only per-capita income indicators. Comparing
Italian and Spanish regions and using Data Envelopment Analysis, this paper
suggests a synthetic indicator of regional economic wellbeing based on Osberg’s
(1985) four components: consumption capacity, accumulation, inequality, and economic insecurity.
The indicator does not impose a pre-defined view of well-being
in the comparison between regions which may have different perceptions about
it. The results show that distinct regions can reach the same level of well-being
through different paths. We conclude by reflecting on how future studies of economic
well-being should explain the principles underlying the geographical distribution
of regional economic well-being.
Alejandra Berenice Trejo Nieto
This paper presents an examination of regional concentration levels
of individual industries in the Mexican manufacturing sector and its determinants.
The shifts after NAFTA are particularly weighed up. We employ state level data
of manufacturing output and employment (1988-2003). The data reveals that industries
have become, on average, more dispersed in terms of both production and
employment. However among the most concentrated industries are those which
are highly linked to international markets. The concentrated, concentrating and
largest industries tend to locate in traditional industrial regions, in the north but
increasingly more in the Bajio. The regression analysis for the determinants of
concentration shows consistency with a number of predictions such as the significance
of economies of scale, wages, exports and transport costs, which indicates
that international trade plays a role in concentration profiles of industries.
María Jesús Ruiz Fuensanta
The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate the factors affecting
the productivity of firms located in industrial districts. With this purpose,
individual firm characteristics and the three classic Marshallian sources of external
economies are combined within the framework of a Cobb-Douglas production
function which is estimated using a sample of 1.968 manufacturing firms located in
45 industrial districts to be found in the Spanish region of Castilla-La Mancha. The
methodology used in the estimation is the multilevel analysis which is especially
appropriate for the analysis of hierarchical data structures. The results show that
district external economies explain a large amount of the between-districts variation
in labour productivity.
Normand Asuad Sanén y Luis Quintana Romero
The main intention of the present work is to identify the clubs formation of the economic convergence and divergence, which the economic growth has caused in the states of Mexico and the role and importance of the geo-spatial factors on this formation. This study was done by a comparative analysis among economic growth and the convergence hypothesis, based on a spatial cross-regression model. The outcome suggests the existence of differences on the convergencedivergence processes in the Mexican States, pointing out the existence of convergence and divergence centers, which are differentiated by their tendency to their stationary status, keeping their per capita income and development differences on the nation.
Eugenia M.ª Cruces Pastor, Julia de Haro García y M.ª Dolores Sarrión Gavilán
In this work we apply the multivariate techniques of Factor Analysis
and Cluster Analysis to a wide spectrum of indicators of the physical, demographic,
economic and social environment at the municipal level, with the aim of
extracting a small number of variables that reflect different aspects latent in the
socio-economic reality of the towns of Andalusia. This allows an analysis of the
existence of significant socio-economic differences between the municipalities of
Andalusia and the subsequent classification of them in relatively homogeneous
groups which can serve as a basis for policy development at the municipal level.