André Magalhães, Geoffrey J.D. Hewings2 y Carlos R. Azzoni
The present paper introduces some spatial econometric techniques to
the convergence issue among Brazilian states. State data over the 1970-95 period are
considered to explore previous results that suggested convergence. As in the US case,
strong patterns of spatial correlation are found during the period. The spatial econometric
analysis reveals that spatial error dependence seems to be present resulting in
the potential for model misspecification. The results indicate that, although some
convergence among states is taking place, it seems to be more of regional phenomena
or perhaps some type of club convergence than a global convergence process. States
like São Paulo dominate the first group while the Northeast states form a second
group or club.
Carmen Ródenas Calatayud y Mónica Martí Sempere
This paper studies the spectacular increase of internal migration during
the nineties in Spain, resulting in a summary of the main characteristics of migration
flows and rates. Furthermore, it shows the differences between the current migration
pattern and the trends established in the 60s. Using a set of migratory variables, we
provide a classification of Spanish provinces by means of a cluster analysis. With
such a classification, we also provide evidence of the existence of a clear correspondence
between migratory behaviour and local economic dynamics.
Carmela Martín, Carlos Mulas-Granados, Ismael Sanz
This article explores the spatial distribution of regional technology indicators
in the EU over the last decade and its impact on cohesion. Thus, we find that
public R&D spending and patent applications have converged among regions during
the nineties. On the other hand, private R&D activities have diverged, as a result of an
asymmetric expansion during the second half of the nineties. We show that when the
dispersion of public R&D across regions diminished in the second half of the nineties,
income disparities at regional level also decreased. Therefore, while technology
policy based on efficiency criteria should remain as a policy tool for economic
growth, this policy should be counterbalanced by R&D funds to the least developed
regions to maintain economic cohesion.
Juan R. Cuadrado Roura y Miguel A. Marcos Calvo
According to the Treaty of the European Union of 1992 and the Constitution
actually in process to be accepted by all Community members, the accomplishment
of a higher economic and social cohesion is one of its main objectives. This aim
includes a variety of aspects, but not clearly well defined in the European documents.
GDP per capita has normally been considered the most useful indicator to measure
the progress in terms of regional convergence. This indicator is also used to determine
the «eligibility» of the lagging regions to receive funds from the Structural Funds (particularly
the «Objective 1» regions). It is also used to evaluate regional successes. Nevertheless,
the progress towards a higher regional economic and social cohesion is not
adequately measured through this simple way. The objective of this paper is to propose
and estimate a more complete approach using a high number of variables and applying
multicriteria methods such as the «Electre». Demographic, educational, economic and
social indicators are used, as well as other directly related to regional competitiveness.
Results referred to «Objective 1» regions and regions between 75-100% of the European
average in GDP pc. show some relevant changes in terms of interregional cohesion
in the EU-15 between 1987-2000, with significant differences compared to the
most conventional approaches to regional disparities. Findings suggest a way to better
qualify the regions to be considered as «eligible» by the European Regional Policy.
Simón Sosvilla Rivero y Encarnación Murillo García
The aim of this paper is to analyse the supply effects of the EU funds
received by the Andalusian region, with special emphasis in the Community Support
Framework 1994-1999 (CSF 94-99). To that end, we examine the effects derived
from a greater and better endowment of productive factors and infrastructure on Andalusian
production and employment, through the estimation (using cointegration
techniques with time series) of an aggregate private-sector production function where
the stock of public capital appears as a separate and different productive factor, as
well as a demand for labour function.
The simulations suggest that the infrastructure investments financed under the
CSF 94-99 the Andalusian economy has grown, during the 1994-2001 period, at an
accumulative rate of 3.42 per cent, whereas it would have grown at a 3.15 per cent
due to such funds. Regarding the labour market, the simulation results indicate that
the CSF 94-99 would have generated or maintained an average of 79,034 employments
during the 1994-2001 period, resulting in an average reduction of 2.87 percentage
points in the unemployment rate.
Marta Guijarro Garvi y María Hierro Franco
Markov chains are a powerful statistical tool to study temporal and
spatial dynamic of mobility. However, its original formulation is far from reality due
to its fundamental hypothesis. This paper is aimed to present some methods that relax
one of these hypotheses: temporal homogeneity. We will pay special attention to one
useful technique in dynamic-spatial analysis that hardly attention has received by stochastic literature, called constant matrix method. This method will be developed in
this paper in order to capture the differential effect of intra-regional migrations in
Spain in the interpretation of models results.
Books and publications
Methodological and research notes
Eva Pardos, Fernando Rubiera Morollón y Ana Gómez Loscos
Business services show a strong trend towards spatial concentration.
In this paper we propose a method to estimate the causes of such a behaviour. We
choose six different explanations, from amongst the ones proposed by theory and partial
empirical studies, and include them together in a simple econometric model. We
apply this model to data for the region of Aragon, a case of particular interest for the
study of geographical concentration because of the disproportionate weight of the capitals
share on regional economic activity, an issue which must be dealt with when
interpreting the estimated coefficients. Our results show that scale and agglomeration
economies are the main influences in location decisions.
Surveys and Debates
Julia Salom Carrasco
This paper analyses the evolution and characteristics of the Spanish
geographers works since 1975 in three interdisciplinary media which are specialised
in regional studies, and it links these changes with the evolution of the geographical
research in Spain. The results reveal than since the beginning of the 80s, the interest
in the applied topics (regional development policies, planning and urban policies, regional
planning) have been increasing as well as the quantitative techniques use. However,
since mid 90s till today, the contribution of the geographers, which was really
important in the 80s, has been drastically reduced. Finally, some current Spanish geography
fields of work are pointed out because, from the authors point of view, they
can be particularly interesting to the regional science development.
Michael F. Goodchild y Robert P. Haining
This article identifies some of the important developments in GIS and
spatial data analysis since the early 1950s. Although GIS and spatial data analysis
started out as two more or less separate areas of research and application, they have
grown closer together over time. We argue that the two areas meet in the field of
geographic information science, with each supporting and adding value to the other.
The article starts off providing a critical retrospective of developments over the past
50 years. Subsequently, we reflect on current challenges and speculate about the future.
Finally, we comment on the potential for convergence of developments in GIS
and spatial data analysis under the rubric of geographic information science (GISscience).
Joaquín Bosque Sendra
The development of the Geographical Information Science, Geocomputation
and the spatial integrated Social Science offer new and interesting perspectives
to study territorial problems. This article describes these proposals and discusses
their possibilities to integrate the different social sciences.
Por Raul Ramos
Por María Cadaval