Primavera 2005



André Magalhães, Geoffrey J.D. Hewings2 y Carlos R. Azzoni

Spatial Dependence and Regional Convergence in Brazil

The present paper introduces some spatial econometric techniques to the convergence issue among Brazilian states. State data over the 1970-95 period are considered to explore previous results that suggested convergence. As in the US case, strong patterns of spatial correlation are found during the period. The spatial econometric analysis reveals that spatial error dependence seems to be present resulting in the potential for model misspecification. The results indicate that, although some convergence among states is taking place, it seems to be more of regional phenomena or perhaps some type of club convergence than a global convergence process. States like São Paulo dominate the first group while the Northeast states form a second group or club.

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Carmen Ródenas Calatayud y Mónica Martí Sempere

The new map of the Internal Migrations in Spain: changes in the sixties pattern

This paper studies the spectacular increase of internal migration during the nineties in Spain, resulting in a summary of the main characteristics of migration flows and rates. Furthermore, it shows the differences between the current migration pattern and the trends established in the 60s. Using a set of migratory variables, we provide a classification of Spanish provinces by means of a cluster analysis. With such a classification, we also provide evidence of the existence of a clear correspondence between migratory behaviour and local economic dynamics.

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Carmela Martín, Carlos Mulas-Granados, Ismael Sanz

Spatial distribution of R&D expenditure and patent applications across EU regions and its impact on economic cohesion

This article explores the spatial distribution of regional technology indicators in the EU over the last decade and its impact on cohesion. Thus, we find that public R&D spending and patent applications have converged among regions during the nineties. On the other hand, private R&D activities have diverged, as a result of an asymmetric expansion during the second half of the nineties. We show that when the dispersion of public R&D across regions diminished in the second half of the nineties, income disparities at regional level also decreased. Therefore, while technology policy based on efficiency criteria should remain as a policy tool for economic growth, this policy should be counterbalanced by R&D funds to the least developed regions to maintain economic cohesion.

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Juan R. Cuadrado Roura y Miguel A. Marcos Calvo

Regional Disparities in the European Union. An approach through economic and social cohesion

According to the Treaty of the European Union of 1992 and the Constitution actually in process to be accepted by all Community members, the accomplishment of a higher economic and social cohesion is one of its main objectives. This aim includes a variety of aspects, but not clearly well defined in the European documents. GDP per capita has normally been considered the most useful indicator to measure the progress in terms of regional convergence. This indicator is also used to determine the «eligibility» of the lagging regions to receive funds from the Structural Funds (particularly the «Objective 1» regions). It is also used to evaluate regional successes. Nevertheless, the progress towards a higher regional economic and social cohesion is not adequately measured through this simple way. The objective of this paper is to propose and estimate a more complete approach using a high number of variables and applying multicriteria methods such as the «Electre». Demographic, educational, economic and social indicators are used, as well as other directly related to regional competitiveness. Results referred to «Objective 1» regions and regions between 75-100% of the European average in GDP pc. show some relevant changes in terms of interregional cohesion in the EU-15 between 1987-2000, with significant differences compared to the most conventional approaches to regional disparities. Findings suggest a way to better qualify the regions to be considered as «eligible» by the European Regional Policy.

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Simón Sosvilla Rivero y Encarnación Murillo García

Supply effects on the Andalusian economy of the structural fonds in infraestructures: the Community Support Framework 1994-1999

The aim of this paper is to analyse the supply effects of the EU funds received by the Andalusian region, with special emphasis in the Community Support Framework 1994-1999 (CSF 94-99). To that end, we examine the effects derived from a greater and better endowment of productive factors and infrastructure on Andalusian production and employment, through the estimation (using cointegration techniques with time series) of an aggregate private-sector production function where the stock of public capital appears as a separate and different productive factor, as well as a demand for labour function. The simulations suggest that the infrastructure investments financed under the CSF 94-99 the Andalusian economy has grown, during the 1994-2001 period, at an accumulative rate of 3.42 per cent, whereas it would have grown at a 3.15 per cent due to such funds. Regarding the labour market, the simulation results indicate that the CSF 94-99 would have generated or maintained an average of 79,034 employments during the 1994-2001 period, resulting in an average reduction of 2.87 percentage points in the unemployment rate.

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Marta Guijarro Garvi y María Hierro Franco

A Dynamic Analysis for inter-regional migratory movements in Spain (1986-2001) based on the MCC Method

Markov chains are a powerful statistical tool to study temporal and spatial dynamic of mobility. However, its original formulation is far from reality due to its fundamental hypothesis. This paper is aimed to present some methods that relax one of these hypotheses: temporal homogeneity. We will pay special attention to one useful technique in dynamic-spatial analysis that hardly attention has received by stochastic literature, called constant matrix method. This method will be developed in this paper in order to capture the differential effect of intra-regional migrations in Spain in the interpretation of model’s results.

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Books and publications


Methodological and research notes

Eva Pardos, Fernando Rubiera Morollón y Ana Gómez Loscos

Locations determinants for business services. The case of Aragon

Business services show a strong trend towards spatial concentration. In this paper we propose a method to estimate the causes of such a behaviour. We choose six different explanations, from amongst the ones proposed by theory and partial empirical studies, and include them together in a simple econometric model. We apply this model to data for the region of Aragon, a case of particular interest for the study of geographical concentration because of the disproportionate weight of the capital’s share on regional economic activity, an issue which must be dealt with when interpreting the estimated coefficients. Our results show that scale and agglomeration economies are the main influences in location decisions.

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Surveys and Debates

Julia Salom Carrasco

Spanish geographers works and the evolution of the geographical research in Spain

This paper analyses the evolution and characteristics of the Spanish geographers works since 1975 in three interdisciplinary media which are specialised in regional studies, and it links these changes with the evolution of the geographical research in Spain. The results reveal than since the beginning of the 80s, the interest in the applied topics (regional development policies, planning and urban policies, regional planning) have been increasing as well as the quantitative techniques use. However, since mid 90s till today, the contribution of the geographers, which was really important in the 80s, has been drastically reduced. Finally, some current Spanish geography fields of work are pointed out because, from the author’s point of view, they can be particularly interesting to the regional science development.

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Michael F. Goodchild y Robert P. Haining

GIS and spatial data analysis: converging perspectives

This article identifies some of the important developments in GIS and spatial data analysis since the early 1950s. Although GIS and spatial data analysis started out as two more or less separate areas of research and application, they have grown closer together over time. We argue that the two areas meet in the field of geographic information science, with each supporting and adding value to the other. The article starts off providing a critical retrospective of developments over the past 50 years. Subsequently, we reflect on current challenges and speculate about the future. Finally, we comment on the potential for convergence of developments in GIS and spatial data analysis under the rubric of geographic information science (GISscience).

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Books reviews