Ayala, L.; Jurado, A. y Pedraja, P.
This paper aims to present an assessment of changes in inequality and
well-being differences across the Spanish regions in a wide time period (1973-2000).
Using the basic Family Budget Surveys and the longitudinal-yearly Family Budget
Continuous Survey 2000, we analyze inequality differences and trends, the changes
in the structure of inequality and the convergence process. We also use abbreviated
social welfare functions in order to capture regional differences and their changes
In this paper fiscal balances of the Regions with respect to the Central
Government are examined. After analyzing the methodological problems, the results
are examined and compared with simulations based on normative criteria. Finally, in
the conclusions a special reference to the interpretation of burden-benefit and the monetary
flow approach is discussed. In opinion of the author the results with both approaches
are not comparable. In addition, unlike the burden-benefit approach, the approach
of monetary flow does not have a clear interpretation.
With the purpose of contributing to the advance of the knowledge on
the labor productivity of the Mexican cities, in this paper the following issues are
analyzed for the period from 1960 to 2003: a) to compare the changes in the occupational
structure of the country with those of the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City
(ZMCM); b) to determine the magnitudes and tendencies of the labor average productivity
according to 17 groups of tertiary activities in the ZMCM; c) to identify in
which of those groups the ZMCM is specialized.
The increasing hegemony of the service sector in the labor structure of Mexico,
mainly in the ZMCM, means that the country advances within the denominated Service
Revolution, but it is concluded that two negative processes exist that restrain the
function of the tertiary sector like engine of the economic development: the high level
of informal services and the significant fall of labor productivity in the tertiary activities.
Artal, A.; Castillo, J. y Requena, F.
This paper investigates the factor content of international trade of the
Spanish regions with the EU-15, using the available regional Input-Output Tables
around 1995. The results indicate that Spanish regions exhibit a revealed comparative
advantage in line with the predictions of the factor proportions theory. All the regions
but Asturias, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Catalonia, Madrid y Vasc Country are net exporters of land. There is a mix of regions that are net exporters of physical capital
according to their level of development: Aragón, Canary Islands, Catalonia, Extremadura,
Madrid and Galicia. Finally, only three regions, Aragon, Navarra and Vasc
Country, are net exporters of human capital.
Transparency is a necessary condition in order to financial market
could exert an adequate discipline over public agents borrowing policy. In federal
and decentralized countries, the risk of insolvency is bigger, given that expenditure
and revenue policies are shared among several tiers of government. In this article we
analyze the determinants of ratings as an instrument that can contribute to improve
transparency in borrowing operations. Discriminant analysis is used and the Autonomous
Communities in Spain are the core of the investigation.
Maximum entropy econometrics is well suited to estimate models with
very few observations or to deal with multicollinearity. These are common problems
in the estimation of a regional production function. In this paper, maximum entropy
is used to analyze two issues that, so far, have not been fully addressed in the literature: the temporal stability of output elasticity of infrastructure and the change on its
values across regions. We estimate the elasticity for each region to calculate the productivity
and the social returns of infrastructure. The results show a decrease over
time and the existence of important regional differences in both productivity and social
returns of infrastructure. Hence, the effects of infrastructures on production can
be very different across regions.
Oriol Roca Sagalés y Héctor Sala Lorda
In this paper we investigate the effect of public investment on output,
employment and private investment in Spain and its regions, and evaluate the relevance
and magnitude of the resulting regional spillover effects. To this aim, we estimate
different models using the Autoregressive Vector (VAR) approach and find a
positive impact in Spain and the majority of regions on GDP, private investment and, to a lesser extent, on employment. We also find significant spillover effects, whose
economic relevance is interpreted from a regional perspective.
María Hierro Franco
The aim of this paper is the analysis of mobility and spatial dispersion in
internal migrations and its relation with GDP convergence in Spain. The study of mobility
is carried out using two measures based on Markov chains, which belong to a general
family of mobility measures based on the distance between locations of origin and
destination. For the study of spatial dispersion, a measure coming from the concept of
entropy is used. The application of these measures to the sequence of matrixes of migratory
flows between regions in 1986-2003 provides evidence of the loss of the role of
internal migrations as a correction element of regional income disparities.
Andrés Arroyo Pérez
Any study or research on economic, social and territorial subjects requires,
of course, to arrange and to use data and statistical information. The article
examines the present state of the production of official regional statistics in Spain and
the UE. As a previous step, the author offers some interesting remarks on the advances experienced by Spain in this field, mainly from the constitution of the so-called
«The State of the Autonomies» to now. The paper shows also some unsolved weaknesses
and problems that would be important to solve as soon as possible. The second
part of the article, surely the most substantial one, offers information on the statistical
sources offered by EUROSTAT, the National Institute of Statistic of Spain, and the
institutes or statistical services created by the Autonomies (Spanish regions).
The subject of this contribution is, without a doubt, of high interest for all researchers
who work on regional and urban matters. This is the reason why Investigaciones
Regionales includes this contribution in this section. It is an updated revision of
the statistical availabilities and of some problems to use them. The reader will also
find references to the most interesting web sites of the different statistical institutions
and some indications on its contents and possible use.
Por Jordi Suriñach
Por Esther Gil Álvarez
Por Rosario Pedrosa Sanz
Lara Esther Lázaro Touza