Issue 59


European Regional Policy

Julián Moral-Carcedo, Carlos Llano-Verduras

How integrated regional financial markets are in Europe? A first gauge based on active securitised loans

Little is known about the degree of integration of financial markets at subnational level in the EU. This article provides new evidence on interregional loan flows within Europe. Building on the “Loan Level Initiative” launched by the ECB, with more than 35 million active loans, we built a georeferenced dataset of securitised loans, covering the period 2014-2018 and the 166 European NUTS 2 regions for which data exists. After reviewing the complex nature of the dataset, we explored its geographical dimension, and conduct an econometric analysis focused on explaining the regional demand for such loans, using different explanatory variables related to the geographic and the socio-economic features of the regions, and alternative panel data specifications (classic versus spatial econometric ones).


Keywords: Capital flows; loans; securitized loans; European financial integration

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Víctor Hugo Torres Preciado, Pablo Mejía Reyes

Dynamic interaction between permanent and temporary employment across manufacturing labor markets in the Mexican states: A structural panel VAR approach

México’s implementation of several labor market reforms aimed to stimulate the flexibilization of labor relationships have brought long-standing concerns among scholars and governmental authorities about a displacement process of permanent by temporary jobs. In this regard, this manuscript aims to respond whether the dynamic interaction between permanent and temporary employment across Mexican states describe a substitution or complementary relationship. By means of implementing a structural panel vector autoregressive model, our estimation results demonstrate that a combination of both types of interaction, substitutive and complementary ones, prevail across manufacturing labor markets at state level. Moreover, a marked heterogeneity among estimated dynamic responses suggests that incentivizing permanent employment would induce stronger substitution effects on its temporary counterpart than, for example, substitution of permanent job positions arising when incentivizing temporary employment.


Keywords: Permanent employment; temporary employment; regional labor markets; México; structural panel VAR

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Lidia de Castro Romero, Víctor Martín Barroso, Rosa Santero Sánchez

Women and the glass ceiling index: regional differences in Spain through a synthetic indicator

The aim of this article is to propose and build a glass-ceiling index at the regional level in Spain, using as a starting point the glass-ceiling index proposed by The Economist from 2014 onwards which measures the role and influence of women in the workforce across the OECD countries. We propose a synthetic index whose main objective is to serve as a tool to compare the presence of a glass-ceiling and its evolution over time between the different autonomous communities. The index can facilitate the design of specific policies to combat the phenomenon.


Keywords: Glass ceiling; gender equality; empowerment; regions; synthetic index

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Rudy Fernández-Escobedo, Begoña Eguía-Peña, Leire Aldaz-Odriozola

Cluster mapping in Spain: Exploring the correlation between industrial agglomeration and regional performance

This paper presents a quantitative cluster mapping methodology for traded industries, adapted for the Spanish case; also explores the correlation between the existence of clusters and regional performance. The study is made at NUTS-2 level, and a total of forty-seven out of eighty-eight 2-digits codes for CNAE-2009 are analyzed; ICT Index and Industry 4.0 Index are also designed and computed. A six-step methodology is applied departing from cross-industry linkages and implementing clustering algorithms; one set of clusters is elected and mapped over territory. The correlation analysis shows that a high number of clusters based on absolute employment data is positively correlated with variables associated with competitiveness, education, ICT adoption, and Industry 4.0, while no significant correlation is found for GDP per capita nor earning per worker.

Keywords: Cluster analysis; agglomeration economics; Industry 4.0; classification methods; industrial agglomeration

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M. Sylvina Porras-Arena, Ángel L. Martín-Román, Diego Dueñas Fernández, Raquel Llorente Heras

Okun’s Law: The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the temporary layoffs procedures (ERTEs) on Spanish regions

Official statistics indicated a break in Okun’s law in all the Spanish regions due to the COVID-19 pandemic; however, herein, evidence of the validity of the law is shown. The temporary layoff procedures (ERTEs) allowed many workers to maintain their jobs. From the productive point of view, the law remained in effect in the regions, showing a strong relationship between idle labour resources and economic activity, and from the social point of view, the apparent breakdown of the law can be interpreted as the implementation of a policy that mitigated the dramatic impact of the economic crisis.


Keywords: Okun’s law; ERTE; expanded unemployment rate

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Angel Aronés Cisneros, Anna Badia Perpinyà, Jordi Nadal Tersa, Vivien Bonnesoeur

Forest fires in ecosystems of the humid puna in the Andes of Ayacucho, Peru

This research analyzes the extent and frequency of forest fires in the humid puna ecosystem from 2013 to 2021, identifying the affected areas and determining the causes in order to improve fire management in the department of Ayacucho (Andean region). from Peru). The methodology combines cartographic analysis, satellite images and semi-structured interviews to identify the causes, consequences and mitigation alternatives of the fires. The results show that the areas affected by the fires during the 9 years are very differentiated, with 2020 being the year with the largest burned area, reaching 2,836 ha, which represents 14.89% of the humid puna of the study area. In addition, the most frequently burned areas are repeated between 7 and 9 times in different years, with an average of 182 ha burned recurrently. The causes of the fires are clearly of anthropic origin caused by the (i) opening of new fields or burning of stubble; (ii) ichu burning for pasture regrowth and (iii) for cultural reasons. It is concluded that the combination of cartographic analysis methodology, satellite images and semi-structured interviews provide information that allows understanding the dynamics of the territory and improve the management and implementation of territorial policies in the mitigation of fires.


Keywords: Forest fires; satellite images; Andes; humid puna

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Serafín Ojeda Casares, Joaquín Valverde Martínez, Ana Ramírez Torres, Iria Enrique Regueira

The statistical grid as a unit of observation and analysis: Andalu-sia, Spanish region case study

Units of observation with reduced dimensions and regular geometry have been increasingly generated in a recent, albeit already steady, trend towards further territorial data disaggregation. In this line of research, the present study reports the results of using the spatial distribution of population data and built-up areas at a high level of territorial data disaggregation with reduced dimensions and with a homogeneous observation unit by applying a regular grid consisting of 250-m square cells. The main objective was to show the results and advantages of working at a high level of spatial data disaggregation. This approach provides a more comprehensive knowledge of the territory and allows for a more accurate analysis of spatial patterns in the different variables under study, thereby enhancing the quality of decision-making processes.


Keywords: Grid; population; cadastre; building; dwelling

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Angela Caro, Julia De Haro-García

The waiting times distribution of public hospitals using a GAMLSS approach: the case of Andalusia (Spain)

Patients’ waiting times are caused by the imbalance between the available supply and the existing demand in the health sector. Exceeding maximum waiting times may worsen diseases and entail additional costs to public health systems. This paper studies the theoretical probability distribution that best fits the average waiting times for non-urgent surgeries and first outpatient consultations for Spanish public hospitals in the region of Andalusia. For doing this we apply Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape, which cover a wide range of probability distributions. We propose the final selected models as a tool to be considered by health authorities for a better management of waiting times/lists.


Keywords: Model selection; GAIC; GAMLSS; waiting lists; waiting times

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Pablo Galaso, Fernando Masi Fadlala, Santiago Picasso, Adrián Rodríguez Miranda, María Belén Servín Belotto

Collaboration networks, support organisations and innovation in Paraguayan clusters

This article examines the role of support organizations (SOs) in promoting innovation and competitiveness
in Paraguayan companies. Six important clusters in the country are analyzed: meat and derivatives, dairy,
ceramics and construction, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. Collaboration networks are
reconstructed using data from interviews with companies and SOs. Network analysis, econometric
regressions, and qualitative analysis of the interviews are employed. The results reveal how companies access
external resources to enhance their competitiveness and foster innovation through cluster SOs. In the
context of a developing country, cooperation between these organizations in cross-sector and crossterritory
networks is crucial.

Keywords: Industrial clusters; social network analysis; regional development; support organisations; Paraguay

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Manuel Gómez-Zaldívar, Fernando Gómez-Zaldívar, José Luis Carrillo Ramírez

Calculation of Complexity Indices for Mexico: Proposal for a more periodic and robust estimation

The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and Product Complexity Index (PCI), proposed by Hidalgo and Hausmann (2009), are measures that quantify the sophistication of productive knowledge that economies (industries) posses (require to produce). These indexes have been frequently used in the economic geography and economic development literature for the optimal design of industrial strategies. In the original study, these authors calculated these measures for countries and products using data on the value of their exports. Since then, various studies have estimated them at the subnational level using other variables such as: employment, patents, technologies, salaries, etc. This article presents a proposal for a more periodic and robust estimation of the indices in Mexico using a different variable, the number of establishments or economic units by type of activity, this variable is obtained from the National Statistical Directory of Economic Units (DENUE, its Spanish acronym).  The results are consistent, both formunicipalities and for industries, and present a better fit compared to those of previous studies. We consider that our proposal is pertinent because it allows for the design and more periodic evaluation of industrial strategies and subnational public policies in the area of economic development.


Keywords: Economic Complexity Index; Product Complexity Index; DENUE

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