Otoño 2015


European Regional Policy

Salmon, K.

New Directions in European Regional Policy and their Implications for Spain

This paper focuses on the new architecture of Cohesion Policy and the new European financial framework within which it is set. The discussion is divided into five sections. Section one examines the structure of the new European Financial Framework, highlighting its impact on financial transfers between Europe and Spain. In section two the new architecture of Cohesion Policy is explained, pointing out the relationships with related agriculture and fisheries policies and ending with an assessment of the principal features of the new Cohesion policy architecture. Section three examines the financial resources behind Cohesion Policy and their distribution in Spain. In section four the discussion shifts to a consideration of the concepts of convergence and the nature of regions. Finally the conclusion suggests that there are significant administrative, financial and strategic planning implications of the new financial framework and remodelled Cohesion policy: for economic development in general and for regional development in particular over the coming years.

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Julian Ramajo, Miguel A. Márquez

The Economic Effects of the Cohesion Policy in Extremadura 1994-2020: 25 Years of Programs and Funds of the European Union

The objective of this work is to provide an exploratory analysis of the economic effects of various Operational Programs implemented in Extremadura, the only Spanish region that, in the context of the European Cohesion Policy, still remains in the group of less developed regions (with a per capita income lower than 75% of the European average). After carrying out an examination of some of the most relevant socio-economic characteristics of Extremadura, a homogeneous summary of the expenditure made during the programming periods 2000-2006 and 2007-2013 is included as a starting point, followed by a brief description of the general spending guidelines in the current period (2014-2020). Subsequently, a review of the works that have estimated the contribution of the European cohesion policy to the growth of Extremadura production and employment during the periods 1994-1999, 2000-2006, 2007-2013 and 2014-2020 is presented. As results, some of the quantifications existing in the literature on the economic effects of the different multiannual financial frameworks are systematized. The conclusions obtained highlight the importance of the European territorial cohesion policy for regions that, like Extremadura, are affected by important structural weaknesses that make their prosperity and competitiveness very difficult.

Keywords: cohesion policy; structural funds; operational programs; Extremadura

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Francisco Yépez Muñoz, Luis Palma Martos, Noemí Pulido Pavón

Rethinking Andalusian RIS3 Strategy Design through Regional Benchmarking

Research and innovation strategies for smart specialisation (RIS3) has played a key role in the European Union regional policy in the 2014-2020 programing period.
Regional benchmarking exercises are encouraged by the European Commission to provide a better vision of the position of the region and detect its strengths and weaknesses.
In our work we intend to reinforce the SWOT analysis included in the RIS3 strategy of Andalusia 2014-2020 using the benchmarking methodology proposed by the European Commission. This exercise allows us to outline new proposals for action and a cualitative methodology that could be useful in the design of RIS3 strategies in the period 2021-2027.

Keywords: European Union regional policy; smart specialisation; regional research and innovation strategies for smart specialisation (RIS3); SWOT Analysis.

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Eusebio Medina García

Legal framework and main instruments for institutional cross-broder cooperation in Europe

In this article, we start with the origins of «institutional cross-border cooperation» in Europe, covering up to today’s «territorial cooperation». We define and compare the concepts of «institutional cooperation» and «traditional cooperation», focusing on analyzing the former and predicting an approximation between the two types of cooperation. We describe the main legal framework for «institutional cross-border cooperation» and analyse its main instruments, placing special attention on the Euroregion, the European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG) and the more recent figure of the European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC), all of which are important references for territorial cooperation in Europe. We finish with some brief references to the current European integration project, in which border management has become an exceptional test Bedfor deciphering certain keys in this construction process.

Keywords: cross-border cooperation; treaties; frontiers; trans-border cooperation; Europe.

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Roberto Ezcurra, Pedro Pascual y Manuel Rapún

Mobility and regional inequality in the European Union

The aim of this paper is to analyse the mobility of per capita income distribution in the European regions during the period 1977-1996. In doing so we will attempt highlight some aspects of the nature of interregional inequality. Our methodological approach involves calculating different indicators commonly used in the dynamic income distribution literature. The results obtained show that the degree of mobility is relatively low within the distribution under analysis. In addition our empirical findings suggest a trend towards a reduction in regional mobility throughout the period of analysis coinciding with sustained interregional inequality in the European Union.

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Roberto Camagni

Uncertainty, social capital and local development: lessons for a sustainable governability of the territory

The article offers some reflections on the important changes that local development has experienced along the last decades. In particular, it emphasizes the strong and increasing presence of uncertainties and the complex character of the actual urban and territorial problems. All this must be confronted to the requirements of governability, the importance of institutions and social co-operation. The article underline some positive aspects of the innovative milieux as an example of creating «social capital», this concept particularly understood as «relationships capital». The final section of the article emphasizes the advantages of the urban strategic plans, built through very participative processes aiming to get cooperation agreements between the economic agents, the citizens and the local authorities. According to the author, the urban strategic plans are an excellent instrument leading to new forms of self-organization and better governability because it helps the city, the citizens and not only the local administration to be placed into the center of the decision processes and the local transformations.

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Consuelo Gámez Amián y José Ignacio García Pérez

Migratory flows of Andalusian workers (1979-1997): an economic analysis with individual data

The present article studies migration rates in between andalucian provincies and also between them and the rest of Spain. Using administrative data from Spanish Social Security, we are able to identify not only permanent migrants but also those who migrate only to do a temporary job during a short term period. We find that migration in Andalucia is mainly in between andalucian provincies although, when we control by distance, the main destinations are Madrid and the Baleares islands. Moreover, these flows are higher for males and highly qualified workers. We estimate a model for the probability of migrating and find that andalucian workers go mainly to provincies with relatively high levels of income, higher real wages and low home prices. We also obtain that the differences in unemployment rates between the origin and the destination is a fundamental motivation of the probability of migrating.

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Antonio Moreno y M.a Eugenia Prieto

Evaluation of procedures to delimit services lines of urban transport areas with GIS

This paper addresses the evaluation of several procedures for delimiting service areas of urban transport facilities and computing the served population. To this end, detailed data of a local case study and a geographical information system are used. Adopting two different georeferencing methods and two spatial metrics, the tested approaches reveal disparate results and errors, which allow to appreciate the advantages and limitations of each one. It is expected that the conclusions will contribute to increase the accuracy of analysis focused to urban public transport planning and decision taking.

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Francisco José Delgado Rivero

Common and Foral IRPF after the 1998 reform: analysis of the differences of collection and redistribution through microsimulation

After the reforms introduced in Spanish personal income tax (IRPF) in 1998, foral and common territory tax structures present differentiated structures. These normative differences are reviewed in the first part of the paper. Reforms are analysed by an static microsimulation using a sample from Spanish IRPF Taxpayers Panel. The results show that the Basque design supposes a fiscal pressure by IRPF slightly superior to the one of the common territory, next to a greater degree of progressivity and redistribution. The Navarrese system throws a fiscal pressure similar to the Basque, but with the progressivity and redistributive capacity of the common design, results derived from Kakwani and Reynolds-Smolensky indicators.

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Manuel Alejandro Cardenete y Ferran Sancho

Evaluation of countable multipliers within the framework of a matrix of regional social accounting

The main goal of this paper is to present a recent Social Accounting Matrix for the region of Andalusia (SAMAND95). Using a variety of available data, such as the Regional Income and Product Accounts, the 1995 Input-Output Table for Andalusia, as well as some national level data, we have constructed a square SAM that reflects all flows and interactions for the base year. With the database we have performed a modeling exercise that allows us to obtain accounting multipliers, and their decomposition into direct, indirect, and induced effects, that show some of the structural relationship among productive sectors.

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Javier J. Pérez, Jesús Rodríguez y Carlos Usabiaga

Dynamic analysis of the relation between economic cycle and unemployment cycle: a regional application

The Okun law for Andalusia and Spain is estimated using quarterly data (1984-2000). We take a VAR approach that allows us to unveil the different dynamic behaviour of the relationship between the output gap and the unemployment gap in the two economies, as well as the asymmetric nature of that relationship. Our findings also suggest that the lower responsiveness of the unemployment gap to the output gap in Andalusia is related to two main factors: the flows out of the labour force in recession are larger in Andalusia, and the higher share of the agrarian unemployment.

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Goerlich, F. y Mas, M.

Some patterns of location of the spanish population throughout century XX

This paper looks at localization patterns in municipal population in Spain along the XX century. Using a homogeneous data base of population at the municipal level —constructed from the eleven censuses from 1900 until 2001— the paper describes the general patterns of population concentration from different perspectives. The main contribution of the paper is to offer a precise quantification of some demographic patterns, already well identified from a more qualitative perspective.

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Erauskin-Iurrita, I.

The sources of economic growth in the Basque Country, Navarre and Spain during the period 1986-2004

This paper studies the sources of economic growth in the Basque Country and its three historic territories (Araba, Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa), Navarre, and Spain during 1986-2004, emphasizing the role of infrastructures and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on growth, and comparing the results with those of the EU and the US. First, the growth rate of output was higher in Navarre and Spain than in the US, and much higher than in the EU. The Basque Country exhibited a better performance only during 1995-2004. Second, labor and capital were the main engines of output growth. The growth in TFP was residual and even declining in the period 1995-2004 due to the increasing contribution of labor. Those results contrast with the pattern for the US especially, where growth in TFP remained substantial. Third, infrastructures contributed approximately 0,10% to output growth. Fourth, the contribution of ICT capital to output growth was around 0,35% and it increased in the period 1995-2004. However, it is still far from the levels for the EU and especially the US. Finally, the growth rate of output per hour was above 1,20%, while the Basque Country lagged behind. Growth in capital intensity was the main source of labor productivity growth. While the contribution of infrastructures to the growth rate of output per hour declined in the period 1995-2004, that of ICT capital increased. Nevertheless the contribution of ICT capital to the growth rate of output per hour remains behind that for the EU and the US.

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Puig,F., Berbel, J. y Debón, A.

The unequal effect of the globalisation between the spanish textile companies

The aim of this work is to analyse the different impact of competitive environment changes across different indicators in the competitive environment on the Spanish companies of the textile and apparel industry. The results obtained from the contrast upon a sample composed by 5.531 SME’s of this sector show a important role of the territory and of the strategy of internationalization. For this reason, given the trend of this industry to the concentration and geographical specialization it is expected that the effect of these changes is irregular and asymmetrical between the main producing Spanish regions.

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Antúnez, A. y Sanjuán, J.

Analysis of clusters in Andalusia

Cluster analysis has become a popular instrument in determining the innovativeness and competitive power of national and regional economies. A wide variety of methods have been employed by researchers to identify the key industrial clusters in a regional economy. This paper reports the results of practicable methodologies for identifying aggregate economic clusters —so-called “megaclusters”— in Andalusia, using the last available input output data (year 2000). The first method used, based in graph theory, classifies sectors according to substantial mutual dependency through their deliveries and purchases. The second one, based on the application of principal components to the input-output table, provide clusters according to the similarity of the intermediate purchases and/or the intermediate sales structures.

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Motellón, E.

An analysis of the regional differences in the impact of the temporary hiring in Spain

This paper provides empirical evidence on the differences in the use of fixed-term contracts across the Spanish regions, and on its origin. An extension of the traditional Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to non-linear model is, for the first time, applied to the analysis of these regional differences. Results point to differences in the use of temporality in Spain, as there are significant regional disparities in the use of fixed-term employment as a tool for labour flexibility. These differences have even a higher impact than those caused by regional heterogeneity in workers and firms’ endowment of observable characteristics. In the light of this evidence, policies designed to fight against the anomalously high rate of temporality is Spain should be questioned, as they have not taken into account regional uniqueness.

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M.ª Elisa Álvarez López, Rafael Myro Sánchez, Josefa Vega Crespo

Delocation in the manufacturing sectors in the EU. A regional overview

The question of delocation in main industrial regions across the EU
is approached here, and its effects on job losses estimated. Seventy five regions are
selected following the double criteria of size of the manufacturing industries and
high per capita income levels. Delocation affected half of them in the period 2000-
2005 when competition in the international markets rose and is of higher intensity
in most of the British, French and Italian regions although its aggregate effect on
employment seems to have been offset by growth in the other sectors. On the other
hand, regions located in the continental area with more market potential have the
highest concentration of location effects. Therefore delocation has changed the
location of European manufacturing industry, benefitting those latter regions and
perhaps bringing higher spatial concentration.

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María del Rocío Moreno Enguix, Marcos Antón Renart, José Antonio Vidal Hernández-Mora

European regional policy: Analysis of the management reports of structural funds 2000-2006

The present work endeavours to carry out a study of the weaknesses/
errors detected by the European Court of Auditors (ECA) in the reports presented
by 15 European countries on the economic and financial management of Structural
Funds in the period ranging from 2000 to 2006. The aim of our study is focused
on the description and analysis of the number and nature of the errors/weaknesses

made by the member states, carrying out an empirical analysis on the possible
causes at the root of this situation, conducting a study with univariate and multivariate
statistical techniques, using a probit choice model type and least squares
estimation. Amongst other conclusions, the current study establishes that the new
Council Regulation has had an uneven effect on the different countries, and that the
volume of such errors/weaknesses detected in the reports of the EU member states
is linked to the amount of resources allocated to each member state per Structural


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Pedro Casares, Pablo Coto-Millán , Vicente Inglada López de Sabando

Talent, technology and economic development in the Spanish Provinces

The model proposed in this paper characterizes economic development
as a three-phase process that involves: 1) non-market exogenous factors such
as territory, amenities, tolerance, diversity, artists and University, which attract
and produce talent; 2) talent that leads to the production of innovation and technology;
and, 3) the combination of exogenous factors with talent, innovation and
technology, which generates economic production. The process basically consists
in that non-market exogenous factors such as territorial, cultural, institutional,
regional factors together with diversity and University influence the production
and attraction of talent, which in turn influences the production of innovation and technology and, lastly, the right combination of the previous factors generates
economic production.

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Maria Manuela Natário, João Pedro Almeida Couto, Maura Helena Couto de Sousa

Innovation Processes of SMEs in Less Favoured Municipalities of Portugal

This paper examines the innovation processes of Small and Medium
Enterprises (SMEs) in peripheral areas, particularly in the municipality of Guarda
and in the islands of Sao Miguel and Santa Maria in the Azores. For this purpose, a
survey was conducted, and three models were estimated: a Logit model, to measure
the difference between firms that innovate and those that do not; a Tobit model,
to measure the intensity of innovation; and a Probit model to analyze the type of
innovation. The results show a positive relationship between the introduction of innovations
in the market sector and the age and activity of the companies, an inverse
relationship in regards to the size of the company and in relation to the region.

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Mónica Martí Sempere , Carmen Ródenas Calatayud

Re-migration in Spain: an approach to its determinants

This paper investigates the reasons that lead migrants to perform
multiple migrations in Spain. After describing the main features of these immigrants,
we specify a binomial logit and multinomial probit in which the probability
of re-migration depends on the personal characteristics of individuals and the
corresponding origins and destinations of their migratory paths. The information
used comes from the microdata of the Residence Variation Statistic. Results indicate
that repeated migration of nationals and non nationals respond to different
reasons. The analysis suggests that foreigners’ re-migrations depend on the results of their labor experiences, whereas other reasons can be found in those of

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Fernando Rubiera-Morollón, Esteban Fernández-Vázquez, Elizabeth Aponte-Jaramillo

Estimation and analysis of labor productivity in Spanish cities

The relationship between city size and territorial productivity has
attracted much attention in the urban economic literature. Some theories on the
field claim for a strong positive correlation between the size of the municipalities
and their income, mainly motivated by economical reasons, geographical characteristics
or other factor of the urban environment. Unfortunately, in many countries the empirical research on this topic is not possible given the lack of data of income
at a local level. This paper proposes the use of entropy econometrics to estimate
urban income and urban productivity according to city size from aggregate information,
which can be defined as an exercise of ecological inference. With the estimated
data a regional classification based on the relevance of the cities size allows
us to measure the relevance of agglomeration economics on the cities productivity
in Spain.

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Fabio Sforzi

Rethinking the industrial district: 35 years later

The year 2014 marked a double anniversary: the 35th and 25th anniversaries of the publication of two seminal papers of Giacomo Becattini on the industrial district. The first paper (Becattini, 1979) conceptualizes the industrial district as a «unit of investigation», while the second (Becattini, 1989) conceptualizes the industrial district as a «model of production». Between the two papers there is a mutual dependence. The industrial district as a «model of production» deprived of the industrial district as a «unit of investigation» loses its originality as a way of interpreting economic change and becomes merely «one type of a cluster». This paper deals with the relationship between district and cluster, then also between the industrial district as a singular theoretical construct and the many industrial districts described by empirical investigations, and concludes with some remarks on the topicality of the industrial district.

Keywords: industrial district; cluster; regional economics; regional studies; economic history
Giacomo Becattini

Beyond geo-sectoriality: the productive chorality of places

This article discusses the question of what should be the proper conceptual framework for analysing productive phenomena. The cause for reflection on this topic stems from a proposal made by researchers from the Bank of Italy (Alampi et al., 2013) to analyse productive phenomena through the lens of an integrated geographical and sectorial perspective. The author proposes a reversal of the approach, arguing that the starting point for analysis should be the assumption that every place — as defined by a combination of natural conditions and the outcome of history — has at any given time a specific «productive chorality». This productive chorality is not merely derived from the technical, spatial, and cultural proximity of businesses, but also, and more importantly, from the cultural homogeneity and congruity of all the inhabitants of that place, who contribute, positively or negatively, to local production.

Keywords: industrial district; geo-sectoriality; productive chorality; local development
Joan Trullén

Giacomo Becattini and the Marshall’s method

The studies of Giacomo Becattini concerning the notion of the «Marshallian industrial district» have led a revolution in the field of economic development around the world. The paper offers an interpretation of the methodology adopted by Becattini. The roots are clearly Marshallian. Becattini proposes a return to the economy as a complex social science that operates in historical time. We adopt a Schumpeterian approach to the method in economic analysis in order to highlight the similarities between the Marshall and Becattini’s approach. Finally the paper uses the distinction between logical time, real time and historical time which enable us to study the «localized» economic process in a Becattinian way.

Keywords: Giacomo Becattini; industrial district; Marshallian industrial district, economic methodology
Fabio Sforzi, Rafael Boix

What about Industrial District(s) in Regional Science?

The aim of this paper is to critically consider how the concept of «industrial district» was born and evolved in the field of regional science. Despite the claim by Isard that the emergence of a spatial dimension in economics was being hampered by Marshall’s alleged prioritising of time over space (Isard, 1956), the concept of «localization economies» introduced into regional science by Ohlin, Hoover and Isard clearly is itself a legacy from Marshall. This contradiction in the work of Isard and others followed to a large extent from the way in which Marshallian concepts were historically situated in economic thought before Giacomo Becattini’s re-reading of Marshall and his ideas. This re-reading began in the 1960s, focussing on conceptual issues related to industry (Becattini, 1962), and then culminated in the following decades with work on the idea of the «industrial district»: considering it first as a unit of investigation of economic research (Becattini, 1979) and, later, as a way of industrial development (Becattini, 1989). In brief, the originality of Marshall’s economic thought can be found in Book IV of his Principles of Economics. This originality can be seen in the statement that economics is more important as a way of studying man in society than as a way of studying wealth; and continues through the affirmation that man’s character is moulded by his daily work. That is to say, a person’s «place of living» (where individuals live and work) is important not only for the formation of human skills but also for the formation of character. The place as the unit of investigation (i.e. the «functional region») is one of the main elements which distinguishes the identity of regional science from other branches of economics. 

Keywords: industrial district; regional science; regional studies; regional economics
Marco Bellandi, Lisa De Propris

Three Generations of Industrial districts

The paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding the evolution of industrial districts from Marshall’s conceptualisation to today’s realities and theorisations of the industrial district as model of industrial organization and development. We discuss three generation of industrial districts: the first generations of districts were the seedbeds for the first industrial revolution. The second generations corresponded to the re-emergence of industrial districts in advanced and industrialised countries during the second half of the twentieth century, after the golden age of mass production. The current and third generation is being revealed resorting to scholarly observation. We will argue that each generation of industrial districts have emerged and grown in correspondence with specific technological, institutional and market conditions. Some evidence from the Italian case is presented.

Keywords: industrial district; manufacturing; local economic development
Fiorenza Belussi

The international resilience of Italian industrial districts/clusters (ID/C) between knowledge re-shoring and manufacturing off (near)-shoring

The literature regarding ID/C is based on seminal writings of Marshall, followed by Giacomo Becattini’s rediscovering of the concept of an «industrial district». But the concept of a «cluster» was also promoted during the 1980s by Porter, and highlighted the importance of geographically clustered and interconnected firms and institutions specialised in a particular field. Despite the model of ID/C has been often described as locally self-contained, various empirical researches and our analysis have pointed out its increasing involvement in the process of internationalization. The recent entry and exit of MNEs, and the phenomena of off-shoring did not question the model of ID/C per se, but it contributed to showing how interwoven the evolution of local economies and MNEs is. 

Keywords: industrial districts; clusters; MNEs; off-shoring; re-shoring
José Luís Hervás Oliver

How do multinational enterprises co-locate in industrial districts? An introduction to the integration of alternative explanations from international business and economic geography literatures

This article focuses on understanding why multinational enterprises co-locate in industrial districts, stressing, unfolding and describing the potential of the local or regional-level agglomerations of people and firms which permits multinational enterprises to obtain additional sources of competitive advantage when properly fit. In order to fulfil this goal, the paper presents an attempt to link the literature of industrial districts and economic geography with that on international business. Three theoretical frameworks are tested in an empirical case. The paper has implications for the two lines of literature and opens up a key debate for the future. 

Keywords: industrial districts; economic geography; international business; off-shoring, MNEs
José Á. Aznar-Sánchez, Anselmo Carretero-Gómez, Juan F. Velasco-Muñoz

An industrial district around a mining resource: the case of marble of Macael in Almería

Marble quarries in Macael have been exploited since ancient times but its complex industrial district had to wait till the fifties to emerge. This industrial district includes extraction, processing and marketing activities. In the 1980s some development programmes were designed in order to modernize and boost the marble sector. Since then, it has become an international reference for ornamental stones. The sector has undergone a great transformation: from being a mining agglomeration to become an industrial district. This shift has provided the district with a great dynamism and resilience. Moreover, its competition position has considerably changed. It used to be based on comparative advantages but nowadays it is based on competitive advantages. In its heart a nodal enterprise Cosentino has emerged, which has become an international leader on a global scale.

Keywords: marble, Almería, local development policy, industrial district, crisis
María Jesús Ruiz Fuensanta, Francesc Hernández Sancho, Vicent Soler i Marco

In vino veritas: competitive factors in wine-producing industrial districts

The wine sector holds a prominent place within the whole Spanish food and agriculture industry. The importance given to this activity has also been transferred to the international market where Spain holds a position of leadership, both in terms of production as in overseas sales. A large number of the wine-producing firms in our country are located in industrial districts, which is to say in geographical areas characterised by a high concentration of small and medium-sized companies whose productive organisation corresponds to a model based on flexible specialisation. In previous papers, it has been possible to verify how wine-producing industries located in industrial areas show greater efficiency in relation to rivals located in other types of environments. The aim of this article is to further research on the specific features of industrial districts which could explain their firms’ increase in efficiency. For the identification and quantification of these determining factors affecting productive efficiency, a methodology based on parametric adjustments models is to be used. An empirical application is to be carried out on a sample of Spanish wine producers for the years 2000 and 2010, extracted from the SABI database. 

Keywords: Industrial districts; Productive efficiency; wine sector
Santiago Lago Peñas, Xoaquín Fernández Leiceaga, Alberto Vaquero

On the causes of fiscal slippage of Spanish regional governments

The aim of this paper is analyze the causes of fiscal slippage at the regional level in Spain during the period 2005-2015. According to results, the main factors are the deficit deviation of past year, the variation in the deficit target, total revenues provided by the regional financing system, the existence of changes of government and, to a lesser extent, political affinity between incumbents at both central and regional levels. On the contrary, spending increases in the past, the debt burden interest and the electoral cycle are not significant variables.

Keywords: public deficit; subcentral public finances; fiscal stability; Spanish regions.

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Sergio Soza-Amigo, Patricio Aroca, José M. Rueda-Cantuche

The Development and Fields of Influence

By using OECD Input-Output in three different periods of time: mid-1990’s, beginning and end of the 2000’s, we discuss the evolution of their economic structures and their sectors along with a comparison among their structural similarities, measures by their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in purchaser’s power parities (ppp). Structural changes and similarities are discussed using fields of influence. The results revealed that economies tend to be stable in their structures depending on their level of development and the profusion of their fields of influence, with the exception of two countries with low GDP per capita but economic structures of developed countries.

Keywords: Analysis Input-Output; Fields of Influence (FoI); Structural Change

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Nicholas Charron , Monika Bauhr

Do Citizens Support EU Cohesion Policy? Measuring European support for redistribution within the EU and its correlates

As the European Union enters into the next decade, its leaders seemingly strive towards more future integration rather than less, despite the recent setback of Brexit and the rise of anti-EU populist parties. In his state of the Union in 2018, Jean Claude Junker emphasized s ‘European solidarity’. One key policy ‘expression of solidary’ would be Cohesion Policy and the Structural Funds, which are “the only real, significant redistributive mechanism in the EU…” (Fratesi 2017). . Despite elite commentary, we know surprisingly little about what EU citizens think of the rationale behind the policy of Cohesion – e.g. economic redistribution within the EU. As part of the PERCEIVE Horizon2020 project, we launched a unique survey to investigate how citizens feel about economic integration within the Union, where 17,200 citizens were interviewed. In this paper, we show how we measure support for the policy, the results as well as a host of correlates. Our analysis shows the variation in citizens’ support for EU Cohesion policy between countries, how support varies between demographic groups, as well as the extent to which support is correlated with utilitarian and ideational factors as well as cue taking. Implications for future developments of this policy are discussed.

Keywords: European Union; Cohesion Policy; Redistribution: Public Opinion: Survey Research
Alberto José Figueras, Daniela Cristina, Valeria Blanco, Iván Martín Iturralde

The influence of agglomeration on growth: A study of Argentina

This paper analyses the influence of agglomeration on economic growth in the Argentinian provinces for the period 1981–2007 using fixed effects and GMM estimation for panel data. The choice of the estimation approach is crucial. After controlling for potential simultaneity bias, there is evidence of a link between agglomeration and growth in the Argentinian provinces, suggesting that the Williamson hypothesis is in place.

Keywords: Regional growth; agglomeration; Williamson hypothesis; Argentina

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Mayer Cabrera-Flores, Santos López Leyva, Arturo Serrano Santoyo

Relevance, pertinence and socialization of knowledge, how researchers contribute to the innovation of Ensenada, Mexico?

This article explains the role of scientific communities for the regional innovation, and the importance to seek scientific excellence, but also seek the relevance of their work in their socio-economic context. We study the case of Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico. For this purpose we were applied a questionnaire to 95 researchers. The results demonstrate that the scientific community has acquired national leadership for the quality of their contributions, however, its impact seldom goes beyond the academic environment. From this perspective, we argue that it is vital that the researchers not only strive for the quality of scientific publications, but they also look for meeting the local and regional development requirements.

Keywords: higher education and research institutions; innovation and invention: processes and incentives; management of technological innovation and R&D; regional studies.

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José Luis Navarro-Espigares, José Aureliano Martín-Segura, César Pérez-López, Guillermo Maraver-Tarifa

Waste Management in the Spanish Municipalities: Is Commitment to Local Agenda 21 more than good Intentions?

Spain is one of the European countries with more municipalities adhering to the Local Agenda 21 (LA21). Environmental spending exerts a great influence on implementing LA21. But some authors raise doubts about the firm commitment of local governments to LA21 objectives.

Thus, the main objective of this paper is to verify whether political commitment is backed up with action towards meeting the objectives of sustainable development by means of budgetary support for waste management policies.

To accomplish this, we applied the Difference in Differences technique for the period 2002-2012 in the Spanish municipalities. Our initial results confirmed the original hypotheses and showed that local governments that adhered to LA21 were genuinely committed to achieving at least one LA21 goal and offering greater budgetary support for waste management. However, the sensitivity analysis revealed unexpectedly ambiguous evidence about the research question, in that we observed a great volatility of results depending on the sample and dependent variables chosen.

Keywords: Local Agenda 21; waste management; difference in differences

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Rosina Moreno

EU Cohesion Policy Performance: Regional Variation in the Effectiveness of the management of the Structural Funds

The effectiveness in the absorption of funds is a permanent challenge for EU member states, and therefore, the analysis of the absorption capacity is needed. The present paper deals with the dimension of the absorption of EU resources and focus on an aspect that has been widely forgotten so far in previous literature: the regional variation in the absorption of the structural funds. Based on EU regional aggregate data on funds allocation and payments provided by the European Commission for the Operating Program 2007-2013 at the NUTS2 level, we observe that full absorption was more the exception than the rule. In addition, the high regional heterogeneity detected in the absorption of the Structural Funds is not only observed across countries but also within the regions in a country, contradicting some explanations that were given in the past about the effect of administrative structures on the absorption capacity. Finally, we offer a discussion on how lack of timely available regional data on EU fund payments hinders the analysis of the effectiveness of the regional absorption of the funds.

Keywords: Funds allocation, Absorption rate, NUTS 2 regions, Funds effectiveness, OP 2007-2013
Jhon James Mora Rodríguez

Spatial social effects on the decision to participate in the youth labor market in a developing country

Globally, many public policies seek to improve the results in participation, employment, and unemployment of the youth in the labor market. Evidence shows that education, age, sex, income conditions of the household, and working conditions affect labor market participation. However, how the behavior of the closest individuals affects the decision of the younger individuals to labor participation in a developing country is a matter of discussion. Using GPS location for 1094 young people, I estimate a spatial model for individual decisions to participate in the labor market in Colombia. Results show that the nearby individual’s similar decision regarding labor participation affects the youth’s decision to participate or social effects in youth labor participation.

Keywords: Spatial Econometrics; Labor Force Participation; Spillover effects

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Ana Fernández Pérez, Esther Ferrándiz León, M.a Dolores León Rodríguez

The effect of economic distance on academic scientific collaboration: Evidence from southern European regions

The main objective of this paper is to examine the effect of econo­mic distance on academic scientific collaboration in peripherical countries in Southern Europe (period 2006-2010). For this purpose, we use co-publications as an indicator of collaboration. Besides, we explore the effect of other proximity notions argued in the extant literature. Our results show that economic distance promotes academic scientific collaboration, supporting the centre-periphery hypothesis. It is also shown that geographic, cognitive, institutional and social proximity facilitates scientific collaboration, while the effect of organizational proximity is not clear.

Keywords: economic distance; proximity; scientific collaboration; regions; gra­vity equation.

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Roldán Andrés-Rosales, Carlos Bustamante Lemus, Giovanna Saraí Ramírez Argumosa

Social Exclusion and Economic growth in the Mexican Regions: A Spatial Approach

The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the importance of social exclusion and its relationship to economic growth in the main Mexican regions. The principal components technique was used to build a multi-dimensional indicator based on the information provided by the Mexican Institute for Statistics and Geography (INEGI), by taking into account the main factors provoking such exclusion. An econometric inference on the regional growth was made using the spatial panel data to find the direct and indirect effects that it has on the social exclusion in the different regions of this country.

Keywords: social exclusion; spatial econometrics; economic growth

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Vicente Royuela , Enrique López-Bazo

Understanding the process of creation of European identity – the role of Cohesion Policy

This paper reviews the theoretical arguments provided by the extant literature for understanding the process of creation of a European identity. We discuss the grounds of mechanisms and determinants driving citizens’ identification with Europe, stressing the role of the territorial dimension on European identity formation. More precisely, our focus is on the literature that have considered the link between European identity and EU policies that influence the citizens’ socio-economic conditions, in general, and Cohesion Policy in particular. This is a major policy within the EU that accounted for some 350 billion euros in the 2007-2013 programming period, about a third of total EU budget. Consequently, it is expected to determine the way citizens identify with the European project, both in the regions more and less benefited by the policy. The study also considers arguments supporting a sort of urban-rural divide in European identity, which could interact with the influence of the Cohesion Policy. Initial descriptive evidence on these links is provided based on results from a comprehensive survey for 15 EU member states.

Keywords: Identification with the EU; Cohesion Policy; Public Attitudes; Urban-Rural divide
José Manuel Santos Jaén, Esther Ortiz Martínez, Salvador Marín Hernández

Special employment centers, Profitable or social objective? An study of their economic and financial situation

The objective of this paper is to if there are differences in the core economic indicators of the special employment centers depending on, if they were created to obtain profit, or with social goals. We have created a database with 166 financial statements of the special employment centers from the Region of Murcia for the period 2012-2016. We have done a descriptive and explicative analysis of these data using the core economic and financial ratios. The obtained results have allowed us to conclude that the different orientation of the special employment centers doesn´t have direct effects on the profitability, but there are significant differences in their liquidity and solvency depending on the CEE type.

Keywords: Special Employment Centers; profitability; liquidity; solvency; disability

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Paola Andrea Garizado Román, Esteban Fernández Vázquez, Henry Duque Sandoval

Cross Entropy Generalized: an approach to the measurement of GDP for the municipalities of Valle del Cauca (Colombia)

The unavailability of geographically disaggregated information does not allow obtaining empirical evidence in order to answer some important questions in the field of urban and regional economics. The objective of this work is to calculate the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at local level, for the 42 municipalities of Valle del Cauca – Colombia in 2010, using ecological inference techniques based on entropy models that have already been applied in Spain and Mexico with satisfactory results.
The proposed method and the application of ecological inference allows of the GDP disaggregated by the 11 economic sectors, a pioneering and very useful work in the region.

Keywords: regional and urban economics; ecological inference; entropy models, Gross Domestic Product; data analysis.

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María Concepción Peñate Valentín, María del Carmen Sánchez Carreira

Public Procurement of Innovation. A Regional Analysis of the Spanish Experience

Public sector could play a crucial role as consumer to foster innovation through public procurement of innovation (PPI). PPI is a R&D, innovation and development policy tool, which shows high potential and relevance in OECD economies. In comparison with other tools, its main advantages are guaranteeing a considerable launch market for innovations developed by the private sector, as well as reducing risks linked with new and expensive technologies. For the public sector, this tool improves the efficiency and quality of public services, and contributes to reduce costs in the medium and long term.

The main aim of this paper is to analyze the experience on PPI in Spain from a regional perspective, focused on types, funding, main sectors, areas of development, and results in products and services. Ninety cases are analyzed from an own-made database, in which a similar behavior among regions is noticed. Nonetheless, several differences are found regarding the relevance of sectors and European funding. Concerning the sectors, industry and services are the predominant activities in the most developed and innovative regions, highlighting knowledge-intensive activities. European funding constitutes a crucial element to implement PPI in less developed and innovative regions.

The results suggest that different levels of innovation and development determine the effectiveness of PPI and the development of innovations.

Keywords: public procurement of innovation; innovation policy; regional diversity; Spain

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Cristina Brasili , Pinuccia Calia , Irene Monasterolo

Profiling identification with Europe and the EU project in the European regions

Recent political events in the European Union (EU) highlighted a growing dissatisfaction of citizens in several EU regions with the EU institutions’ management of socio-economic and financial challenges. This eventually led to a political legitimization crisis, whose drivers are partially shared among EU regions and partially area-specific. However, the relation between citizens’ identification with the EU project and the regions’ characteristics has not been analysed yet. In this article, we fill in this gap by addressing three research questions: i) To what extent do EU citizens identify with Europe and the EU project? ii) Do European regions have different patterns and level of identification? iii) Are the results driven by specific socio-economic variables?
Answering these questions is crucial to inform a more inclusive and resilient design of the EU Cohesion Policy in a crucial period for reforming the EU. To this purpose, we develop a novel probabilistic classification model, IdentEU, which embeds with the concept of individual identification with Europe. We use micro-level data from a survey implemented within the PERCEIVE project. We find that the influencing variables that mostly affect (citizens and) regions’ identification with the European project are: trust in the EU institutions, the effectiveness of EU Cohesion Policy and spending, and the level of corruption. These issues gain relevance at the light of three main challenges that affected the EU socio-economic development path in the last decade, i.e. the 2008 financial crisis, the globalization process, and Brexit.

Keywords: Identification; Citizens’ perception of the EU; Cohesion Policy; probabilistic model; IdentEU
David Giner Sánchez, Marco Antonio Celdrán Bernabeu

The Smart scenario and its derivatives in the online marketing strategy of tourist destinations. The case of the Valencian Region

The technological revolution has shaped a renewed tourism scenario characterised by an intensive use of technology throughout the travel cycle, which is evolving towards a context of smart management in which technologies associated with social media stand out, due to their influence on the strategy and operations of online marketing at the destinations. The new patterns of behaviour of supply and demand associated with social media now determine the image of destinations and influence their competitiveness, thus placing social media at the centre of marketing management of the entities responsible for promoting and managing the destination. Social media and the technologies that support it represent the main way to bring destinations closer to the smart destination model. This research approaches the current tourism scenario in order to understand its influence on the online marketing processes developed by tourist destinations. Specifically, and for a group of destinations in the Valencian Community, an applied analysis is carried out based on a social media measurement index.

Keywords: social media; social media marketing; online marketing; smart destinations

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Siro Bayón-Calvo, Helena Corrales-Herrero, Olga Ogando Canabal

The determining factors of early leaving from education and training. The case of Spanish regions

The early leaving from education and training rate is a basic indicator in the education system that has influence on economic and social structure. Thus, its reduction is a priority for the Europe 2020 Strategy. Spain has the highest early school leaving rate among the European Union, showing strong interregional differences. This article studies the impact of educational, economic and sociocultural factors on the early school leaving rate at the NUTS2 regions. We have applied a panel data methodology for the period 2001 to 2011. Among other results, expenditure on education appears as a relevant measure for tackling this problem.

Keywords: education; early school leaving; panel data; expenditure on education.

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Agustí Segarra Blasco

Subsidies, Loans and Tax Incentives for Business R&D in Catalonia

The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of public support on R&D investment among Catalan firms. The text approaches the analysis from a triple perspective. Firstly, it details the characteristics of Catalan firms that have benefitted from public support for R&D. Secondly, it establishes whether public support fulfills the principle of additionality and stimulates the innovative efforts of Catalan companies. And thirdly, it analyses whether support affects the composition of private investments in R&D. To address these issues, we have information provided by the questionnaires of the Community Innovative Survey (CIS) which, based on a sample of 3,410 Catalan firms, reflect the aid received during the period 2010-2012. A two-stage Heckman model is applied during the econometric development to correct sample selection bias. Of the results obtained, two stand out. On the one hand, public support produces a positive effect on the innovative efforts of Catalan firms; and on the other, government support alters the composition of the R&D investments of innovative Catalan firms in favour of the investments with lower risk and closer to the market.

Keywords: Public support for R&D, subsidies, loans, tax relief, private investments in R&D

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Giovanni Perucca

When Country Matters More than Europe: What Implications for the Future of the EU?

This paper studies the determinants of the imbalance between country and European identity. While the two sentiments are positively correlated, recent empirical evidence showed the emergence, in the last years, of an increasing imbalance in favour of the identification with individuals’ country of residence. In the political arena, this phenomenon is accompanied by the increasing support to nationalisms and Eurosceptic parties almost everywhere in the EU. It is therefore interesting to understand what are the individual and contextual factors associated to this identity imbalance. The assumption tested in this paper is that the unequal distribution (among individuals and regions) of the benefits from EU integration is the main determinant of the emerging antagonism between European and national identity. Empirical results support this hypothesis. Individuals with lower education and income, and those living in the lagging-behind regions of the EU are more likely than the others to identify more with their own country than with Europe.

Keywords: European identity; national identity; European regions
Carlos Gonçalves, Monique Borges, João Marques

Post-crisis Resilient Governance in Centro region (Portugal) after 2017 wildfires

Governance systems, when addressing post-disaster action, play an important role in minimizing the community’s vulnerability in future disruptive events. The literature describes how post-disaster actions towards resistance-resilience measures are often implemented, shifting to adaptive-resilience approaches as a second concern, and disregarding resilience-transformative strategies. Two consecutive wildfires in the Centro Region (Portugal), in 2017, cut off access to the Services of General Interest (SGIs) and knocked off-balance the socioeconomic territorial structure and identity (the main impact was 116 mortal victims). In this paper, the media coverage of the phenomena during the 12 months following the disaster is analysed using a sample of 150 news articles published in two newspapers. The public discourses are indicative of the overall importance given to the impact and to the responses based on resistance-resilience measures. Moreover, the theoretical and practical challenges for the policy design and organization of the governance systems in post-disaster contexts is discussed.

Keywords: Post-disaster resilience; governance systems; services of general interest; resistance; adaptability; wildfire

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Antoni Zabalza, Julio López-Laborda

The uneasy coexistence of the Spanish foral and common regional finance systems

This paper develops a model which integrates the foral or cupo system applied to the Basque Country and Navarre, the common system applied to the other fifteen Spanish autonomous communities and the central government budget. The model shows that the theoretical cupo it generates is nothing more than an indirect form of measuring the equalising transfer between the central government and the corresponding autonomous jurisdiction. The cupo form per se is completely neutral: the foral jurisdictions operate exactly under the same financial conditions as the non-foral jurisdictions, despite that in the latter case the transfer is directly measured as the difference between expenditure needs and fiscal capacity. In the context of our model, the cause of the foral economic advantage is the particular imputation procedure developed by the cupo law, which clearly biases the scales in favour of the foral and, therefore, against the non-foral communities. An economic advantage of the foral respect to the aggregate of the non-foral communities that, even if only referred to the design of the cupo, we have estimated at 29.8% in the case of the Basque Country and at 28.2% in the case on Navarre. These calculations should be interpreted as a lower bound on the foral advantage. The model has clear implications for reform.

Keywords: regional finance; Spain; foral system, common system.

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Jackeline Jiménez, Rafael Alvarado

Effect of Labor Productivity and Human Capital on Regional Poverty in Ecuador

The objective of this research is to examine empirically the relationship between labor productivity and human capital with regional poverty in Ecuador. In order to correct the bias caused by endogeneity and the omission of spatial dependence, we used regressions with instrumental variables and spatial econometric techniques. We estimated two sets of regressions. In the first, the dependent variable is the poverty rate and the independent variable is human capital. In the second, the poverty rate is a function of labor productivity. In both sets of models we include covariates associated with the social and economic characteristics of the regions. The results show that labor productivity and human capital can be public policy mechanisms to reduce poverty in less developed regions with spillover effects in neighboring regions.

Keywords: poverty; human capital; labor productivity; spatial econometrics

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Vitaliano Barberio , Ines Kuric , Edoardo Mollona , Luca Pareschi

The use of social media in EU policy communication and implications for the emergence of a European public sphere

Cohesion policy is the European Union’s (EU) main investment policy and seeks to strengthen economic, social and territorial cohesion. While accomplishments in this regard are constantly measured, European citizens are not always aware of the policy’s impact and the role the EU plays therein. This is especially relevant as the communication of EU policies is central to the emergence of a European public sphere, an acknowledged condition for European integration. In this paper, we aim at advancing research in this regard through the analysis of cohesion policy communication on the social media channels of ten Local Managing Authorities (LMAs) responsible for managing and communicating structural funds at the local level. By building on a bottom-up construction of shared meaning structures through semi-automatic analysis techniques, we make the following three observations: first, social media communication is indicative of ‘horizontal Europeanization’; second, Europeanization occurs both in the form of the spontaneous amalgamation of shared discontent expressed by citizens and the institutionalization of top-down EU communication measures adopted by LMAs; and third, a cluster of topics articulated internationally and showcasing a negative attitude towards the EU funding scheme suggests that, counter-intuitively, Euroscepticism seems to facilitate the emergence of a European public sphere.

Keywords: Cohesion policy; European Public Sphere; Topic Modeling; Social Media; Euroscepticism
Luis Cruz, Pedro Ramos, Eduardo Barata, João-Pedro Ferreira

The forestry products value chain and the costs of reshaping it: Multi-regional impacts of shrinking the pulp and paper industries in Portugal

Forestry industry macroeconomic assessments typically concentrate on the production, harvesting, and earliest processing of wood products, underestimating the full range of forests impacts in regional economies.
This work proposes a broader concept – forestry products value chain – that ponders the contribution of the downstream activities relying (directly and indirectly) on Silviculture and Forestry products.
The paper adopts a methodology based on a Multi-Regional Input-Output framework. We apply this approach to the Portuguese economy. Results clarify the role of eucalyptus in “Pulp”, “Paper and Cardboard” and “Paper and Cardboard Articles”. Finally, the projected wider macroeconomic consequences from a reduction of these productions is evaluated.

Keywords: Forestry; Multi-regional Input-Output analysis; Portugal; Pulp and paper; Value Chain

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Giovanni Cunico , Eirini Aivazidou , Edoardo Mollona

European Cohesion Policy performance and citizens’ awareness: A holistic System Dynamics framework

As Cohesion Policy constitutes the major funding scheme of the European Union, not only does literature explore if the policy’s performance is satisfactory but also investigates the extent to which the policy is effectively communicated to citizens. To integrate analysis of implementation and communication, we develop a novel qualitative framework that elicits a holistic analysis of the causal mechanisms behind: (i) the distribution of the Cohesion Policy funds, their management at a local managing authority level and the related impact on projects’ quality, and (ii) the communication processes that underpin citizens’ awareness about the Union’s role in funded projects. The multilevel nature and the dynamic behaviour of the system, as well as its multiple feedback loops, render System Dynamics appropriate as an approach to model its complexity. The proposed framework aims at stimulating a focused discussion on Cohesion Policy by providing policy-making insights for designing efficient schemes to improve the actual and the perceived performances. Finally, it is anticipated to support research in the field from a new organisational perspective through considering the impact of local actors’ structures, procedures and actions on Cohesion Policy outcomes.

Keywords: European Cohesion Policy; funds’ absorption; projects’ quality; citizens’ awareness; modelling framework; System Dynamics
Yency Contreras Ortiz

Value Capture Instruments: evolution of the Participation in Land Value increments in Colombia 1997-2017

This article analyzes the concept of value capture, the typologies of existing instruments and it examines the opportunities and regulatory and operational restrictions of “participation in capital gains” as one of the main bets in regards in Colombia. Using qualitative and quantitative tools, the results of the regulation and implementation of the instrument are shown in 20 years of formal existence for 444 municipalities in the country. It is evident that although a significant number of municipalities incorporate the tax in their territorial regulations, despite its potentialities this instrument has not been consolidated as an important source of financing. Small and medium municipalities have most mobilized such participation in the context of their urban growth transformations and the territorial planning decisions.

Keywords: Participation in Land Value; value capture instruments; urban development; master plan

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Publication and documentation


Books and publications


Methodological and research notes

Margarita Argüelles y Carmen Benavides

A matrix of social accounting for Asturias

A Social Accounting Matrix is an integrated system of accounts that presents in a double-entry table all the transactions made in an economy among productive sectors, production factors, institutional sectors and the rest of the world. In comparison with an Input-Output Table, it offers a greater deal of information and shows completely the circular process of income, captivating more precisely the effects of exogenous changes. One of the main profits of a Social Accounting Matrix is to serve as a database for the development and application of a computable general equilibrium model. This is, in fact, the aim pursued with the elaboration of the Social Accounting Matrix for the Asturian economy presented here. This Matrix has been constructed with data from the 1995 Regional Accounts of Asturias, and its structure has been adapted to its future use as a database for a computable general equilibrium model of this regional economy.

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Mourão, P.

Local development and competitive soccer teams location. The Portuguese case

This work is focused on testing the following hypothesis: “The competitiveness of a Portuguese professional soccer team is influenced by the economic development level of the surrounding region.” Using a rational choice model and working with binary time-series cross-sectional data, this work focuses on a Portuguese professional soccer team from 1970 to 1999. This is the first work on the teams and economy of Portugal that tests this hypothesis. The results corroborate the main importance of three factors that increase the probability that a municipality will house the head office of a team that plays in the first league: 1) the per capita income, 2) level of infrastructures, and 3) demographic dimension.

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Mario Duarte Canever, Alberto Pérez Chueca, Richard Pfeilstetter

An Evaluation of Entrepreneurship Orientation within the LEADER+ program in the European Union

This article deals with the currently widely discussed entrepreneurial
orientation (EO) and investigates the roles this concept actually plays within
the LEADER+ development program and its implementation in three European
territories. The main question addressed in this analysis is whether or not the
LEADER+ envisaged EO as a basic element for rural development. Can we really
observe both at the rhetoric and at the implementation levels impacts of the EO on
the LEADER+? To answer this question the official programmatic documents of
the EU community initiative LEADER+ are analyzed against the background of
the most important EO concepts and characteristics. Subsequently, a deeper look
in the implementation of LEADER+ in three European territories shows that the
EO still has little impact in the actions implemented. Some major contradictory
rhetoric of the LEADER+ is identified regarding EO and its importance to the development
program. As well as some important suggestions for improving future
development program can be derived from the analysis. These show that, despite
the lack of focus on EO by the LEADER+, the concept has the potential to make a
significant contribution to the successful development of regions.

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Judith Clifton, Daniel Díaz-Fuentes, Marcos Fernández-Gutiérrez, Julio Revuelta

Territorial differences in access to Services of General Economic Interest. Evaluation of regulatory policies from a regional perspective

This paper analyzes from a regional perspective the use of Services
of General Economic Interest (SGEI), to which general access in equal conditions
is considered key for social and territorial cohesion by European regulation
In order to do so, citizens’ revealed preferences with respect to SGEI according to the characteristics of their place of residence are analyzed. Results
identify patterns of SGEI use by region, and also find lower use of some services
in areas of low population density related to access problems. These results have
significant implications for SGEI regulation in regional terms.

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Surveys and Debates

Quesada, J.

Regional policy of innovation

Economic globalization has rendered innovation policy as the main instrument for improving —or keeping— the threatened competitiveness of firms and regions. This article analyzes the level of innovation in Spain, the role played by Information and Communication Technologies in regional growth, the fundamentals for public intervention and the regional Spanish Research, Development and innovation Programmes.

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Rafael Boix, Luciana Lazzeretti

Creative industries in Spain: a first view

Creativity is the ability to generate something new, merging data,
perceptions and matters in order to produce new and useful things. About 22% of
the Spanish employees belong to the «creative class» and about 5.7% of the production
comes from the «creative industries». Despite these data, the general research
focusing on the creative economy in Spain is poor. The aim of this article is to fill
this space by providing a general view of the creative economy in Spain, focused
on the «creative industries». The article introduces the basic theoretical aspects, the
measurement of creativity, compared data about production, employment and the
location of creative industries, as well as the discussion about policy.

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Majed Atwi, Ramón Barberán, Jesús Mur, Ana Angulo

CO2 Kuznets Curve Revisited: From Cross-Sections to Panel Data Models

The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) predicts that environmental degradation intensifies when per capita income increases and subsequently subsides after a certain income level is reached, resulting in an inverted U-shaped relationship. There is abundant literature on the topic that corroborates the existence of a positive income elasticity for environmental quality. However, results are controversial.

We take the case of CO2, by comparing the results of the cross-sectional estimates with those derived from a panel approach. To this end, we use data from 182 countries during the period 1992-2011. We found that the EKC hypothesis is acceptable under both approaches, although the estimated turning points in cross-sections seem unreliable. Our application underlines the importance of adequately address central problems such as heterogeneity, structural breaks and spatial interaction.

Keywords: Kuznets environmental curve; CO2 emissions; spatial effects; structural breaks; heterogeneity

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Yakira Fernández-Torres, Juan Carlos Díaz-Casero, Julián Ramajo-Hernández

Institutions and economic growth: ¿consensus in the literature?

The aim of this paper is to analyze the degree of consensus in the literature on the impact of institutions on economic growth, for which we differentiate between three dimensions: economic, political and social institutions. After a literature review from 1990 to today, as main conclusion we find that, generally, the revised authors find a positive effect of economic institutions and social capital and negative effect of political instability, while political freedom has less clear results. On the other hand, it can also be concluded that there are insufficient studies on the differences in the estimated effects and the sequence of implementation between dimensions, showing the necessity of more empirical analysis about this topic.

Keywords: New Institutional Economics, economic growth, institutions, institu- tional quality.

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Books reviews

Amalia Gómez Casillas

The Social Explorer

The Social Explorer is a free and open access platform that allows an agile and interactive approach to geo-referenced data from Spain of sociodemographic, economic, political and environmental interest. In this review a brief presentation of it is made.

Keywords: Social explorer; Spain; Georeferenced data; municipalities

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